SaTE Project

Safeguards Training and Education

Description of SaTE Project

The main objective of SaTE project is to support the establishment of an effective set of actions in the Education and Training (E&T) sector related to the topic of “nuclear safeguards”. The aim is to widen the education and training approach in this field in the beneficiary countries.

The nuclear safeguards system is a key element of the international regime of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Over decades it has evolved into a multifaceted set of legal and technical measures aimed at verifying the compliance of States with their non-proliferation commitments in the nuclear sector.

Due to high demands on technical competence especially in the nuclear field, the ongoing availability of new information, the recruitment of new staff, the development of new reactor types, new safety mechanisms and new assessment methodologies, one can always find the  necessity for general, in depth and/or specialized training for the staff of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs).

The system of international safeguards requires that the NRAs and nuclear facility operators in the countries, where safeguards are implemented, should satisfy specific requirements in respect to the accounting for and control of nuclear material. Each signatory member State should act in meeting the obligations stipulated in their safeguards agreements and additional protocols.


The objective of the project is to strengthen the capabilities of the beneficiary NRAs and their support organizations (Ministries and any other associated organizations in charge of safeguards). The project offers opportunities for training and education for the staff, or potential future staff, of these organizations involved in conducting inspections facilitating the fulfilment of the countries’ international safeguards obligations.

This can be achieved by

  • the development and implementation of a Nuclear Safeguards Master Program
  • implementation of short-term courses (condensed in 1 or 2 weeks)
  • active participation of tutees in hands-on training sessions

The project will focus on providing sustainable education and training program at the Master level or even a Master after Master, based on a multi-national level. This approach will allow for high-quality standards and consistent training content but also enables the trainees from the participating organizations to be more versatile and to develop a network of knowledge within EU member states.


The main project website can be reached at


Online Modules: composed of digital content (videos, quiz, additional material), webinars, group activities.

In-presence labs: held at Politecnico di Milano, JRC lab in Italy and Europe and other European Labs which are part of the ENEN network.

Project Work: offers the opportunity to synthesise the knowledge acquired and apply it critically


  • 01. Introduction and basics
    • Nuclear technologies
    • Legal framework
    • Soft Skills
  • 02. History of non-proliferation and safeguards
    • History and Policy of Nuclear dual-use
    • EURATOM and IAEA Safeguards in the International Relations
    • Historical making of Proliferation risks and Non-Proliferation policies
  • 03. National and International legal frameworks
    • Basics of Non-Proliferation Treaty
    • Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement
    • State regulators, State’s role, rights and responsibilities
  • 04. Fuel cycle and non-proliferation
    • Elements of the fuel cycle:
      • Mining
      • Conversion
      • Enrichment
      • Fuel fabrication
      • Reactors
      • Reprocessing
      • Waste Disposal
      • Aspects of Weaponisation
      • Physical Model/Pathway analysis
  • 05. Nuclear material accountancy and mathematical methods for nuclear safeguards
    • Facility Attachments and Euratom safeguards regulation
    • Nuclear material accountancy concepts
    • Analytical methods and game-theoretical concepts
  • Basic Labs: 2 weeks of experimental activities and visits
  • 06. Methodology for implementation of safeguards
    • Legal basis for nuclear material safeguards
    • Tools to verify nuclear material accounts
    • Political and legal options of inspectorates to apply sanctions in case of violations
  • 07. Destructive analysis
    • Destructive Assay (DA) techniques
    • Practical exercises with detectors currently approved for safeguards inspections
  • 08. Non-destructive measurements
    • Non-Destructive Assays (NDA) used for the measurement of nuclear material
    • Introduction on the basic principles of NDA techniques
  • 09. Verification and monitoring techniques incl. containment and surveillance
    • Design Information Verification
    • Process monitoring approaches
    • Sealing technologies
  • 10. Export control
    • Main principles ruling nuclear trade control
    • Analysis of international and regional legally and politically instruments
    • General principles of international trade
  • 11. Nuclear security
    • Locations and use of nuclear and radiological materials
    • Risks of misuse of nuclear and radiological materials
    • Basics of physical protection, detection technologies and nuclear forensics analysis
  • Advanced Labs: 3/4 weeks of training on the job
  • 12. Future challenges in safeguards
    • Novel technologies, approaches and methodologies
  • Project work: Individual work or in pairs, resume and deepen the work done during the Advanced Labs

Important DATES

  • April 15th, 2021
    Application opening
  • June 16th, 2021
    Start of the selection phase
  • June 22th, 2021
    Application deadline EXTENDED
  • July 15th, 2021
    Communication of admission
  • October 14th, 2021
    Specializing Master opening event
  • From October 2021 to October 2022
    Specializing Master didactic activities

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